Rolul si locul Japoniei in economia internationala

În baza acordului existent între Academia de Studii Economice și Insitutul Român de Studii Euro-Asiatice - IRSEA, la 19 mai 2015, Excelența Sa Dl. Keiji Yamamoto, ambasadorul Japoniei la București, a susținut o prelegere pentru studenții și masteranzii Facultații de Relații Economice Internaționale pe tema deosebit de interesanta „The Role and the Place of Japan in the International Economy”.

Evenimentul a fost foarte apreciat de către cei cca. 120 de participanți, întrucât au avut posibilitatea de a adresa înaltului oaspete numeroase întrebări la care au obținut răspunsuri din sursă la prima mână.

Vă prezentăm câteva extrase din prezentarea Excelenței Sale:

„Based on UN data, 2013, the total value of world trade was 18,45 trilion USD when expressed as total exprots. Of that, Japan’s total exports in 2013 amounted to 710 billion USD, or approximately 3,8% of total world exports (UN data).

Japan’s GDP in 2014 was 4.9 trillion USD, which represents 6,5% of total world GDP. US’s GDP is 22% of world GDP, Chinas is 12% and Japan follows in third place (UN data).

15 years ago, in the year 2000, the US, the world’s largest economy, accounted for 30% of the world GDP, while Japan was in second place with 14%. At that time, China’s GDP was 3,6% of world GDP, while the EU as a whole accounted for 26,4% (World Bank data).

The population of Japan is approximately 120 million, smaller than the population of the US (310 million people)or that of China (1,35 billion people) (World Bank data), but, until 2010, when it was overtaken by fast-rising China, Japan had had, for a very long time, the second largest GDP in the world. Japan has now the third biggest GDP in the world, but in 2013, it was still the second largest contributor to the United Nations Regular Budget, having a share of 10% after the United States of America (22%), and being followed by Germany (7,1%), France (5,5%) and the UK (5,1%). These are the top five most important contributors to the UN Regular Budget (data from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan).”

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„Japan’s main trade partner countries in 2014 were China (approximately 20%), USA (approximately 13%), South Korea (approximately 6%), followed by others (data from the Ministry of Finance). Of course, trade with the European Union (EU) is quite significant, representing approximately 10% of the total. The main products that Japan exports to the rest of the world are the so-called high-tech goods like machine tools, construction machinery, transport vehicles, electronic goods, and it imports mainly natural resources like oil and liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Looking at trade relations between Japan and Romania, based on Japanese data, the value of Japanese exports to Romania in 2014 reached JPY 35,4 billion (or approximately 253 million EUR at an exchange rate of 1 EUR = 140 JPY) and Romanian exports to Japan amounted to JPY 52,4 billion (or approximately 374 million EUR). The main products that Japan exports to Romania are auto parts, auto vehicles, electric circuit parts, pumps and centrifugal machines, synthetic rubber etc., while Japan imports from Romania mainly lumber, clothing articles, wood for construction, wooden furniture, footwear and such. If we look at statistics, we notice that Japan’s commercial exchanges with Romania only account for 0,05% out of Japan’s total trade value. As the interdependence of the world economy is on the rise, there is still much more room for increase in this area.

There are approximately 150 Japanese companies registered in Romania. Of these, 25 are large manufacturing companies, which have 46 production plants in Romania and employ more than 30000 people here.

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„The growth strategy, based on four main pillars, depicts a road map intended to lead the Japanese economy along the path of sustainable growth, bringing out the true potential of both individuals and private companies, trough structural reforms. The four elements of the growth strategy are:

1. ”investment promotion” policy measures, such as deregulation and lowering investment taxation etc.

2. ”further integration of the Japanese economy in the world economy”, in other words, encouraging Japanese companies to expand their business abroad as well as welcoming increasingly more foreign direct investments to Japan,

3. ”making better use of human resources”, by creating an inclusive, better work environment, in which women, young people as well as the elderly can get more actively involved,

4. ”the creation of new markets”, in an attempt to solve issues that the entire world is facing right now, such as low birth rates and longevity.”

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„Finding ways to pull out of the long-term deflation, wich Japan has been struggling with, at the same time, looking at how to steadily decrease public debt levels and trying to tackle the challenge of a rapidly aging society and falling birth rates, which lead to an increasingly smaller workforce, all are the challenging issues for Japan. In addition, there is a growing income gap, especially affecting part of the younger generation, whose lifestyle doesn’t seem to improve no matter how hard they work. Japan is now working hard to find answers to overcome these problems, while desiring to contribute to the welfare of Japan’s future generation as well as to that of the entire world.”